Asynchronous operations with ReactiveCommand

I've decided to start re-publishing the ReactiveUI documentation in blog post format over the next few weeks, so that more people get eyes on it. To get a sneak preview for what's coming next, head to the docs PR on GitHub

One of the most important features of ReactiveCommand is its built-in facilities for orchestrating asynchronous operations. In previous versions of ReactiveUI, this was in a separate command class, but starting with ReactiveUI 5.0, this is built-in.

Commands and RegisterAsync

To use ReactiveCommand with async operations, use the RegisterAsync family of methods, depending on what your async operation returns:

  • RegisterAsync - Registers an async method that returns IObservable<T>
  • RegisterAsyncTask - Registers an async method that returns Task or Task<T>; use this method if you want to write a method with async/await.
  • RegisterAsyncFunc - Registers a synchronous method that returns a value and is run on a background thread.
  • RegisterAsyncAction - Registers a synchronous method that does not return a value and is run on a background thread.

All of these methods return an IObservable which, when subscribed to, returns the results of the computations. All of these methods guarantee to deliver results on the main thread, so extra ObserveOns are unnecessary.

It is important to know, that the returned IObservable will never complete or OnError - errors that happen in the async method will instead show up on the ThrownExceptions property. If it is possible that your async method can throw an exception (and most can!), you must Subscribe to ThrownExceptions or the exception will be rethrown on the UI thread.

Here's a simple example:

LoadUsersAndAvatars = new ReactiveCommand();

var usersAndAvatarResults = LoadUsersAndAvatars.RegisterAsyncTask(async _ => {  
    var users = await LoadUsers();

    foreach(var u in users) {
        u.Avatar = await LoadAvatar(u.Id);
    }

    return users;
});

usersAndAvatarResults.ToProperty(this, x => x.Users, ref users);

LoadUsersAndAvatars.ThrownExceptions  
    .Subscribe(ex => this.Log().WarnException("Failed to load users", ex));

Why RegisterAsync?

Since ReactiveCommand itself is an Observable, it's quite easy to invoke async actions based on a ReactiveCommand. Something like:

searchButton  
    .SelectMany(async x => executeSearch(x))
    .ObserveOn(RxApp.MainThreadScheduler)
    .ToProperty(this, x => x.SearchResults, out searchResults);

However, while this pattern is approachable if you're handy with Rx, one thing that ends up being Difficultâ„¢ is to disable the Command itself when the search is running (i.e. to prevent more than one search from running at the same time). RegisterAsync does the work to make this happen for you.

Another difficult aspect of this code is that it can't handle exceptions - if executeSearch ever fails once, it will never signal again because of the Rx Contract. ReactiveCommand handles marshaling exceptions to the ThrownExceptions property, which can be handled.

Common Patterns

This example from UserError also illustrates the canonical usage of RegisterAsync:

LoadTweetsCommand = new ReactiveCommand();

// When LoadTweetsCommand is invoked, LoadTweets will be run in the
// background, the result will be Observed on the Main thread, and
// ToProperty will then store it in an Output Property
LoadTweetsCommand.RegisterAsyncTask(() => LoadTweets())  
    .ToProperty(this, x => x.TheTweets, ref theTweets);

var errorMessage = "The Tweets could not be loaded";  
var errorResolution = "Check your Internet connection";

// Any exceptions thrown by LoadTweets will end up being
// sent through ThrownExceptions
LoadTweetsCommand.ThrownExceptions  
    .Select(ex => new UserError(errorMessage, errorResolution))
    .Subscribe(x => UserError.Throw(x));